User-IDs are identities that users go by. A User-ID might be a name, an email address or both. User-IDs can also contain both and even have a comment.

In general, the format of a User-ID is not fixed, so it can contain arbitrary strings. However, it is agreed upon to use the Below is a selection of possible User-IDs:

Firstname Lastname (Comment) <email@address.tld>
Firstname Lastname
Firstname Lastname (Comment)

PGPainless comes with a builder class UserId, which can be used to safely construct User-IDs:

UserId nameAndEMail = UserId.nameAndEmail("Jane Doe", "");
assertEquals("Jane Doe <>", nameAndEmail.toString()):

UserId onlyEmail = UserId.onlyEmail("");
assertEquals("<>", onlyEmail.toString());

UserId full = UserId.newBuilder()
        .withName("Peter Pattern")
        .withComment("Work Address")
assertEquals("Peter Pattern (Work Address) <>", full.toString());